Les agents contractuels de droit public : une situation en voie d’amélioration

La dichotomie public/privé en France se ressent avec une particulière acuité lorsqu’on examine la situation des agents non titulaires ou contractuels de droit public dans l’administration hospitalière qui, théoriquement et à l’origine, se devait de ne recourir à cette catégorie que de manière temporaire et pour des tâches bien déterminées, par dérogation au principe énoncé à l’article 3 de la loi n° 83-634 du 13 juillet 1983.

Mais ce qui devait rester temporaire s’est finalement pérennisé et ainsi étaient créés au sein de l’administration même deux statuts antinomiques : le statut de la fonction publique et celui des contractuels. Là où l’un bénéficiait de la sécurité de l’emploi attachée à son statut et de garanties légales, l’autre se voyait gratifié d’un contrat à durée déterminée, incité – voire sommé – à passer le concours correspondant à la fonction qu’il occupait, si ce n’est un concours de son choix.

Pendant que l’un bénéficiait d’un statut légal ((La loi n° 86-33 du 9 janvier 1986.)), l’autre voyait sa situation régie par un modeste décret ((Le décret n° 91-155 du 6 février 1991.)).

Comme on pouvait le prévoir, cette situation a pu donner lieu à des litiges et la jurisprudence administrative, tirant fort logiquement les conséquences de la réglementation applicable et non du Code du travail, donnait tort aux requérants soutenant que leurs CDD successifs depuis des années pouvaient être requalifiés en CDI, par comparaison à la conception du juge prud’hommal en ce qui concerne le contrat de travail relevant du droit privé.

Ainsi et par exemple, l’administration peut toujours, pour des motifs tirés de l’intérêt du service ou pris en considération de la personne, ne pas renouveler le CDD d’un agent public ((CAA Paris, 28 octobre 2005, Amadou M’Baye, n°01PA04322.)). Même une erreur matérielle de l’attestation d’un DRH ne peut modifier la logique des contrats à durée déterminée réitérés ((CAA Paris, 14 novembre 2005, Boyot c/ AP-HP, n°02PA02937.)).

En revanche, si l’administration a le droit de ne pas renouveler le contrat d’un agent non titulaire, le Tribunal administratif d’Amiens rappelle qu’elle ne peut le faire dans n’importe quelle condition et sanctionne l’administration pour avoir refusé de renouveler un contrat après avoir, pourtant, promis de le faire ((TA Amiens, 6 septembre 2005, Mme Duport, n° 0202349, AJDA 23 janvier 2006, p. 158.)).

Cette situation, avec toutes les iniquités qui pouvaient en découler, aurait pu perdurer longtemps encore mais c’était oublier que le droit communautaire veille, notamment à travers les directives et la Cour de Justice des Communautés européennes, à l’application de principes fondamentaux, tels que l’égalité de traitement entre hommes et femmes en ce qui concerne l’accès à l’emploi, à la formation et à la promotion professionnelles, et les conditions de travail, pour ne donner que cet exemple.

C’est ainsi que la directive 1999/70/CEE du 28 juin 1999 concernant l’accord-cadre CES, UNICE et CEEP sur le travail à durée déterminée a été transposée aux articles 7 à 14 de la loi n° 2005-843 du 26 juillet 2005 portant diverses mesures de transposition du droit communautaire à la fonction publique.

Aussi les emplois à temps non complet d’une durée inférieure au mi-temps et correspondant à un besoin permanent sont-ils désormais occupés par des agents contractuels qui peuvent être recrutés par des CDI ou des CDD, étant précisé que la durée des CDD successifs ne pourra plus dépasser 6 ans et qu’ils devront être renouvelés par décision expresse ((Art. 9 de la loi du 9 janvier 1986.)).

Autre nouveauté : les CDD des agents contractuels remplissant certaines conditions au 1er janvier 2004 ou au plus tard au terme du contrat en cours (âge, position, ancienneté, etc.) sont transformés d’office en CDI (art. 10 de la même loi).

Si la dichotomie demeure – et elle doit le demeurer sans quoi le concours de la fonction publique n’aurait plus de sens – la situation des contractuels, sans être idyllique, s’améliore sous l’égide du droit communautaire qui, rappelons le au passage, constitue 80 à 90% de la législation nationale.

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