Revue de jurisprudence judiciaire

Responsabilité du gynécologue obstétricien

Il convient de rappeler que le médecin n’est responsable des conséquences des actes de prévention, de diagnostic ou de soins qu’en cas de faute. Il revient à la victime d’en rapporter la preuve. Le reproche fait au gynécologue obstétricien d’un défaut d’information précise et circonstanciée sur les risques inhérents à l’intervention pratiquée est infondé.

Il ne saurait être reproché au médecin, qui doit respecter la volonté du malade, d’avoir éventuellement tardé à pratiquer une intervention vitale, alors qu’il ne pouvait la réaliser sans procéder, contre la volonté du patient, à une transfusion sanguine. ((CA Aix-en-Provence, 10èmeJacques B. et a. c/ Charles A. et a. ch. B, 21 déc. 2006, )).

Secret médical et pièces d’un dossier médico-social

Un médecin psychiatre a fait citer des époux devant le tribunal correctionnel sous la prévention d’avoir, dans une précédente procédure conclue par sa relaxe définitive du chef d’agression sexuelle sur mineur de quinze ans, établi une attestation faisant état de faits matériellement inexacts produite aux débats par les parties civiles. Il a annexé à la citation, en vue de la discussion contradictoire à l’audience, plusieurs pièces du dossier médical et psychologique du fils des prévenus, majeur protégé, présent dans l’établissement spécialisé où il intervenait en qualité de médecin psychiatre à la date des faits dont il avait été accusé. Les prévenus ont demandé aux juges d’écarter ces pièces des débats au motif qu’en les produisant le médecin avait révélé des informations à caractère secret dont il était dépositaire par profession, délit prévu et puni par l’article 226-13 du Code pénal.

Pour rejeter cette demande, l’arrêt énonce qu’aucune disposition légale ne permet aux juges répressifs d’écarter les moyens de preuve produits par les parties au seul motif qu’ils avaient été obtenus de façon illicite ou déloyale, et qu’il leur appartient, en application de l’article 427 du Code de procédure pénale, d’en apprécier la valeur probante après débat contradictoire. En se prononçant ainsi, sans rechercher si l’examen public et contradictoire devant la juridiction correctionnelle, à la demande du médecin de l’établissement qui avait pris en charge le majeur protégé, de pièces de son dossier médico-social, couvert par le secret professionnel, constituait une mesure nécessaire et proportionnée à la défense de l’ordre et à la protection des droits de la partie civile au sens de l’article 8 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, la cour d’appel n’a pas donné de base légale à sa décision. ((Cass. crim., 24 avr. 2007, n° 06-88.051.)).

Violation d’une clause de non-concurrence dans un contrat d’exercice en commun

Le Code civil distingue traditionnellement entre trois types d’obligation : l’obligation de faire, l’obligation de ne pas faire et l’obligation de donner. Si l’obligation est de ne pas faire, celui qui y contrevient doit des dommages-intérêts par le seul fait de la contravention : c’est là un principe acquis.

En l’espèce, des médecins, qui avaient constitué une société civile immobilière pour acquérir et gérer un immeuble ainsi qu’une société civile de moyens, ont conclu un contrat d’exercice en commun dans les locaux sociaux qui stipulait, en cas de retrait de l’un des associés, sa non-réinstallation dans un rayon de vingt kilomètres pendant trois ans. À la suite d’une mésentente, l’un des médecins, cessant toute collaboration avec l’autre médecin, a ouvert un cabinet personnel situé à 400 mètres de l’ancien. Pour débouter l’autre médecin de sa demande en dommages intérêts au titre du préjudice subi, l’arrêt attaqué a relevé que, si la violation de la clause de non-concurrence avait constitué une faute susceptible d’engager la responsabilité contractuelle du médecin, aucun préjudice consécutif n’était établi, et que la simple contravention à la clause ne saurait le constituer. En statuant ainsi, la cour d’appel a violé l’article 1145 du Code civil ((Cass. civ. 1ère, 31 mai 2007, n° 05-19.978, Decoopman c/ Dérégnaucourt.)).

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