Faute médicale et enfant né handicap : les conditions de réparation du préjudice

La jurisprudence Perruche définitivement enterrée, on sait que nul ne peut se prévaloir d’un préjudice du seul fait de sa naissance, par application de l’article 1er de la loi du 4 mars 2002. La personne née avec un handicap dû à une faute médicale peut obtenir réparation de son préjudice lorsque l’acte fautif a provoqué directement ou indirectement le handicap ou l’a aggravé, ou n’a pas permis de prendre les mesures susceptibles de l’atténuer.En l’espèce, la Cour d’appel de Lyon a rejeté la demande aux fins d’indemnisation du préjudice de l’enfant né avec un spina-bifida dès lors qu’il est établi que ce n’est pas un geste médical qui est à l’origine du handicap, la seule faute médicale alléguée résidant dans le fait de n’avoir pas décelé le handicap avant la naissance. La découverte du handicap avant la naissance n’aurait pas permis de l’atténuer. Les parents sont recevables à solliciter l’indemnisation de leur préjudice moral résultant du handicap de leur enfant non décelé pendant la grossesse à la suite d’une faute caractérisée. En l’espèce, leur demande d’indemnisation n’est pas fondée, la preuve d’une faute caractérisée des différents médecins n’étant pas rapportée.

Concernant le médecin tenu de la prise en charge obstétricale de la patiente, le rapport d’expertise fait état d’une prise en charge consciencieuse attentive et diligente, le praticien ayant prescrit les examens classiquement recommandés, ainsi que les marqueurs sériques. L’expert révèle que les constatations rapportées sur les comptes rendus des échographies ne justifiaient pas d’exploration complémentaire.

S’agissant du médecin ayant réalisé les deux premières échographies, l’expert conclut que la forme de spina-bifida présentée par l’enfant faisait partie des formes rendant le diagnostic difficile et pouvant échapper au dépistage.

Quant au médecin ayant réalisé la troisième échographie, il n’était pas, selon l’expert, au terme idéal pour faire le diagnostic d’un spina-bifida sans signe indirect ((CA Lyon, ch. civ. 1ère, 7 déc. 2006, P. c/ M.)).

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