Quelles limites à la présomption de l’article 102 de la loi Kouchner ?

Dans une décision du 25 juillet 2007, le Conseil d’État a fixé les limites à l’application de la présomption établie par l’article 102 de la loi du 4 mars 2002 en matière d’imputabilité d’une contamination par le virus de l’hépatite C. Mme Marie-Louise A. a subi le 30 juin 1978 une hystérectomie à la polyclinique mutualiste Malartic, à Ollioules (Var), au cours de laquelle elle soutient avoir reçu une transfusion de produits sanguins. Ce n’est qu’en 1990 qu’un examen réalisé dans le service d’hépato-gastroentérologie de l’hôpital de la Conception de Toulon, a permis de diagnostiquer la contamination de Mme A par le virus de l’hépatite C.

Par jugement en date du 21 décembre 1999, le Tribunal administratif de Nice a rejeté la demande de Mme A. tendant à la condamnation du centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulon-La Seyne sur Mer et de l’Etablissement départemental de transfusion sanguine du Var à lui verser une somme de 68 602 euros (450 000 F), assortie des intérêts légaux, en réparation du préjudice résultant de sa contamination par le virus de l’hépatite C que l’intéressée estime imputable à la transfusion sanguine.

La Cour administrative d’appel de Marseille, après avoir relevé que le centre de transfusion sanguine de Toulon ne disposait pas d’archives remontant au-delà de 1978, que la clinique Malartic n’avait pas été en mesure de renseigner l’expert désigné par le juge des référés du tribunal administratif de Nice sur la réalité de la transfusion alléguée par Mme A et que l’expert estimait « probable » la réalisation d’une telle transfusion compte tenu de la nature de l’opération subie par l’intéressée, a estimé qu’en l’absence d’éléments apportant la preuve contraire, Mme A devait être regardée comme établissant la réalité de la transfusion qu’elle prétend avoir subie.

L’Etablissement français du sang se pourvoit en cassation contre l’arrêt du 6 mai 2004 par lequel la cour administrative d’appel de Marseille a annulé ce jugement et l’a condamné à verser à Mme A la somme de 30 000 euros.

Le Conseil d’Etat a jugé qu’en faisant ainsi bénéficier Mme A de la présomption prévue à l’article 102 précité de la loi du 4 mars 2002, pour la démonstration de la réalité de la transfusion sanguine qu’elle aurait subie, la cour a commis une erreur de droit.

Plus précisément, la Haute assemblée rejette sa requête au motif :

« que la présomption légale instituée par cette disposition ne s’applique qu’à la relation de cause à effet entre une transfusion et la contamination par le virus de l’hépatite C ultérieurement constatée, mais ne concerne pas l’existence même de la transfusion soupçonnée d’avoir causé cette contamination ; qu’il incombe donc au demandeur d’établir l’existence de la transfusion qu’il prétend avoir subie, selon les règles de droit commun gouvernant la charge de la preuve devant le juge administratif » ((CE 25 juillet 2007, Établissement français du sang, n° 271247.)).

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