Restauration en établissements de santé, une activité autonome

Westernohe '06: Sodexho TapeLe milieu hospitalier n’est pas spécialement connu pour être un endroit où patients comme personnels jouissent des subtilités de la gastronomie française, loin s’en faut. Pour les établissements de santé publics, l’activité de restauration représente de surcroît une charge onéreuse de laquelle ils entendent s’affranchir en procédant aux nécessaires externalisations.

Ce transfert d’activité ne se déroule pas toujours dans la sérénité, comme nous le montre l’arrêt de la Chambre sociale de la Cour de cassation en date du 27 mai 2009 ((Cass. Soc., 27 mai 2009, n°08-40.393, arrêt n°1118 FS+P+B+R.)).

Un centre hospitalier, qui assurait lui-même jusqu’alors la confection des repas des malades par le biais de salariés spécialement affectés à cette tâche, a décidé, à compter du 1er octobre 2005, de confier cette activité à une entreprise extérieure. Il était précisé que cette dernière devrait poursuivre cette activité dans les mêmes locaux et avec les mêmes moyens matériels.

L’établissement public de santé a informé les salariés concernés qu’ils passeraient au service de l’entreprise extérieure, ce que ces derniers ont contesté en saisissant le juge prudhommal soit d’une demande de réintégration soit en paiement d’indemnités de rupture.

Par arrêt du 26 novembre 2007, la Cour d’appel de Lyon a rejeté leur demande car il y a bien eu transfert d’une entité économique propre conservant son identité après l’externalisation des prestations de services de restauration. Il est intéressant de relever que les auteurs du pourvoi devant la Cour de cassation se focalisent sur la mission première d’un hôpital, à savoir dispenser des soins, avec ou sans hébergement ainsi que développer des actions concourant à une prise en charge globale du malade. Telle la République, un établissement de soins serait une entité une et indivisible. Dans ces conditions, pour les requérants, il ne peut y avoir application de l’article L.122-12 alinéa 2 du code du travail (recod. art. L.1224-1).

Le pourvoi est rejeté.

« Mais attendu qu’il résulte de l’article L.1224-1 du Code du travail, interprété à la lumière de la directive n°2001/23/CE du Conseil du 12 mars 2001, que l’entité économique autonome dont le transfert entraîne la poursuite de plein droit avec le cessionnaire des contrats de travail des salariés qui y sont affectés s’entend d’un ensemble organisé de personnes et d’éléments corporels ou incorporels permettant l’exercice d’une activité économique qui poursuit un objectif propre.

Qu’il s’en déduit que l’existence d’une entité économique autonome est indépendante des règles d’organisation, de fonctionnement et de gestion du service exerçant une activité économique ».

Le sens de l’arrêt est on ne peut plus clair : une activité accessoire peut constituer une entité économique autonome indépendamment des règles d’organisation, de fonctionnement et de gestion du service au sein duquel s’exerce l’activité économique.

Les auteurs du pourvoi éconduits n’ont fait que reprendre la solution de la Cour de cassation apportée à travers l’arrêt du 24 octobre 2000 ((Cass. Soc., 24 octobre 2000, n°97-45.944, JSL 5 décembre 2000, n°65-9.)), par lequel cette dernière  avait pourtant formellement exclu que les activités de restauration puissent faire l’objet de l’application de l’article L.122-12, alinéa 2 du code du travail. Pour motiver cette décision, les hauts magistrats s’étaient fondés sur la mission même des établissements de santé, telle que définie par le code de la santé publique, à savoir la prise en charge globale du patient.

Revirement, quand tu nous tiens !

Omar YAHIA

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