A quelle condition est légale une inégalité de traitement entre agents de même corps ?

Dans une décision du 26 juin 2009  ((CE, 26 juin 2009, M. Raffi, M. Quarello, n°307369.)), la conseil d’Etat juge qu’une différence de traitement entre agents d’un même corps est légale si elle est justifiée par les conditions d’exercice des fonctions, par les nécessités ou l’intérêt général du service et n’est pas manifestement disproportionnée.

La haute juridiction était saisie du pourvoi de deux praticiens hospitaliers (PH) contre les ordonnances d’un président de chambre de la cour administrative d’appel de Lyon annulant des jugements du tribunal administratif de Grenoble qui avaient condamné l’Etat à les indemniser d’un préjudice financier résultant de la différence de rémunération entre PH à temps plein et les PH à temps partiel.

Elle annule ces ordonnances qui avaient jugé inopérant le moyen tiré du principe d’égalité. Or, si avant l’entrée en vigueur de la loi n°2002-73 du 17 janvier 2002, ces praticiens relevaient de statuts différents, cette loi « a posé le principe d’un statut unique commun aux praticiens à temps partiel et aux praticiens à temps plein, tout en laissant au pouvoir réglementaire la faculté d’édicter des dispositions spécifiques selon que ces praticiens consacrent tout ou partie de leurs activités à l’hôpital ».

Réglant l’affaire au fond, la haute juridiction considère « que le principe d’égalité ne s’oppose pas à ce que l’autorité investie du pouvoir réglementaire traite de manière différente des agents appartenant à un même corps si cette différence de traitement est justifiée par les conditions d’exercice des fonctions, par les nécessités ou l’intérêt général du service et si elle n’est pas manifestement disproportionnée au regard des objectifs susceptibles de la justifier ».

En l’espèce, après avoir rappelé les conditions différentes d’exercice des PH à temps plein et à temps partiel, le conseil d’Etat juge :

« que, du fait de ces différences d’accès au secteur de la médecine libérale, de la part prise par les praticiens hospitaliers à temps plein dans l’organisation et le fonctionnement du service et de l’intérêt général qui s’attache à la valorisation d’une activité à temps plein au sein des établissements publics de santé et bien que praticiens hospitaliers à temps plein et à temps partiel relèvent désormais, comme il a été dit, d’un même statut, le pouvoir réglementaire a pu sans méconnaître le principe d’égalité entre agents d’un même corps, prévoir que la rémunération des praticiens à temps plein serait proportionnellement plus élevée que celle des praticiens à temps partiel ; que les différences relatives de rémunération, comprises entre 7 % et 10 %, ne sont pas manifestement disproportionnées et sont en rapport avec les objectifs qui les fondent ; que par suite aucune faute susceptible d’engager la responsabilité de l’Etat n’a été commise dans l’exercice du pouvoir réglementaire ».

Par ailleurs, et d’un point de vue purement procédural, la haute juridiction précise que l’article R.222-1 du code de justice administrative permet au juge de recourir à l’ordonnance dès lors que « l’arrêt de la cour administrative d’appel sur lequel il s’est fondé avait l’autorité d’une décision passée en force de chose jugée, nonobstant la circonstance qu’il faisait l’objet d’un pourvoi en cassation ».

Omar YAHIA

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