Ce que change la loi de simplification du droit

FlickR - Etude par JcMacoEn légistique, la simplification résonne parfois comme une antiphrase, tant il est vrai que le législateur contemporain est tenté de vouloir, de manière récurrente, clarifier le droit positif en y apportant par touches successives des prétendues améliorations qui, dans son esprit, s’avéreront bénéfiques pour le citoyen. C’est ainsi que la loi n°2009-526 du 12 mai 2009 de simplification et de clarification du droit et d’allègement des procédures compte pas moins de 66 pages et 140 articles modifiant, clarifiant et/ou complétant le code civil, le code électoral, le code de procédure pénale, le code de commerce, le code de l’urbanisme, le code général des impôts, le code rural, le code de la construction et de l’habitation, le code de l’organisation judiciaire et bien d’autres encore, soit une quarantaine de codes au total.

Aussi, l’objet du présent article n’est-il pas de présenter le texte de loi dans son ensemble, ce qui a déjà été fait ((Se reporter notamment au Recueil Dalloz 2009, p. 1332, et à la Semaine juridique, édition générale, n°21 et 23.)), mais d’examiner ce qui change au regard de la pratique des établissements de santé et au regard du droit des patients.

Procédure d’indemnisation des accidents médicaux

Les établissements sont ponctuellement confrontés à des patients victimes d’accidents médicaux, lesquels choisissent en général de recourir à la procédure d’indemnisation extra-juridictionnelle des accidents médicaux devant les commissions régionales de conciliation et d’indemnisation (CRCI), qui est censée être plus rapide que le juge judiciaire (pour les cliniques) ou administratif (pour les hôpitaux).

C’est sur un point de procédure particulier que la loi a choisi de se focaliser, mettant fin à une égalité de traitement entre les travailleurs, victimes d’accidents médicaux, et les autres victimes. Il résulte, en effet, de la nouvelle loi une substitution du critère d’« atteinte à l’intégrité physique ou psychique » à celui d’« incapacité de travail ».

Trois articles du code de la santé publique sont affectés par cette réforme. Il s’agit des articles L.1142-1, II, nouveau, L.1142-1-1,1°, nouveau et L.1142-17-1 nouveau.

Accès de la CNAMéd au dossier médical

La loi pose le principe de l’accès aux informations confidentielles contenues dans le dossier médical par la commission nationale des accidents médicaux (CNAMéd). Ainsi, le nouvel article L.1142-10 de la code de la santé publique dispose qu’« une commission nationale des accidents médicaux, placée auprès des ministres chargés de la Justice et de la Santé, composée de professionnels de santé, de représentants d’usagers et de personnes qualifiées et dont le président est désigné par le ministre de la Justice et le ministre chargé de la Santé, prononce l’inscription des experts en accidents médicaux après avoir procédé à une évaluation de leurs connaissances. Elle contribue à la formation de ces experts en matière de responsabilité médicale, dans des conditions définies par décret.

La Commission nationale des accidents médicaux est également chargée d’établir des recommandations sur la conduite des expertises, de veiller à une application homogène du présent chapitre par les commissions régionales instituées à l’article L.1142-5 et d’évaluer l’ensemble du dispositif dans le cadre d’un rapport remis chaque année avant le 15 octobre au gouvernement et au parlement. Pour l’exercice de ces missions, la commission accède, à sa demande, aux informations couvertes par le secret médical dans des conditions déterminées par décret en Conseil d’Etat permettant de préserver la confidentialité des données à l’égard des tiers.

La composition et les règles de fonctionnement de la Commission nationale des accidents médicaux sont fixées par décret en Conseil d’Etat ».

Procédure en cas de décès dans un établissement de santé

La loi modifie l’article 80 du code civil, s’agissant de la procédure à suivre à la suite du décès d’une personne âgée dans un établissement de santé ou un établissement social ou médico-social, la référence aux hôpitaux et formations sanitaires étant abandonnée. Les directeurs de ces services devront en donner avis, par tous moyens, dans les vingt-quatre heures, à l’officier de l’état-civil. Au sein de ces établissements, un registre doit être tenu sur lequel seront inscrits les déclarations et renseignements portés à la connaissance dudit officier.

En outre, l’officier d’état-civil se rendra sur les lieux pour s’assurer du décès et en dresser l’acte, sur la base des déclarations et renseignements à lui fournir, mais uniquement « en cas de difficultés », contrairement à l’ancien article qui lui imposait ce déplacement.

Compte de gestion de la tutelle : les obligations du tuteur

L’article 511, alinéa 1er du code civil est modifié, s’agissant de la gestion du patrimoine des majeurs et mineurs en tutelle. Cet article dispose désormais que « le tuteur soumet chaque année le compte de gestion, accompagné des pièces justificatives, en vue de sa vérification, au greffier en chef : 1° du tribuanl de grande instance, s’agissant des mesures de protection juridique des mineurs ; 2° du tribunal d’instance, s’agissant des mesures de protection juridique des majeurs ».

Auparavant, aucune différence n’était faite entre les majeurs et les mineurs. Cette disposition entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier 2010.

Création du délégué à la protection des majeurs

La loi crée la fonction de délégué à la protection des majeurs instituée au sein de chaque cour d’appel par le Premier président. A cette fin, est créé un article L.312-6-1 dans le code de l’organisation judiciaire qui dispose qu’« un magistrat, qui prend le nom de délégué à la protection des majeurs, est désigné au sein de chaque cour d’appel par le Premier président. Ce magistrat préside la formation de jugement qui statue en matière de protection juridique des majeurs sur les appels des décisions rendues par le juge des tutelles et le conseil de famille, ou y exerce les fonctions de rapporteur ».

Cette disposition entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier 2010.

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