Sacrifiés sur l’autel de la santé publique

FlickR - Mundi Narguilé - Lanpernas 2.0La cause était entendue. Tous les consommateurs occasionnels ou permanents de cet exotique instrument s’en doutaient, ne serait-ce qu’intuitivement. A compter de la publication du décret n°2006-1386 du 15 novembre 2006, ils devraient se faire une raison et plier comme tout le monde. L’heure n’est plus au tabagisme, sous quelque forme qu’il se présente au demeurant. Si ceux des psychiatres qui soutenaient que le tabagisme de leurs patients faisait partie de leur thérapie et que le leur interdire ne les aiderait pas à se soigner, ont pu se résoudre à la nouvelle réglementation, les salons à narguilé se soumettraient bon gré mal gré. Car c’est de ces derniers qu’il s’agit.

Ils ne s’y sont pas soumis sans batailler. Au plan juridictionnel, tout du moins.

En effet, la société L’Oasis du désert demandait au Conseil d’Etat d’annuler pour excès de pouvoir la décision du 9 avril 2008 par laquelle la ministre de la santé, de la jeunesse, des sports et de la vie associative a refusé de proposer l’abrogation du décret précité fixant les conditions d’application de l’interdiction de fumer dans les lieux affectés à un usage collectif.

Les principaux grands principes (et textes) ont été invoqués par notre requérante. Principe de la liberté du commerce et de l’industrie, principe constitutionnel de la liberté d’entreprendre, charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne, droit au respect de la vie privée, liberté de réunion. De l’imagination, il en a fallu pour défendre bec et ongles les prérogatives mais surtout l’existence même de ces lieux d’échange, de convivialité et d’opaque fumée.

Mais rien n’y a fait.

Dans sa décision ((CE, 10 juin 2009, Société L’Oasis du désert, Syndicat union des professionnels du narguilé c/ ministère de la santé et des sports – secrétariat général du gouvernement, n°318066.)), le Conseil d’Etat est resté inflexible :

« Considérant que le régime d’interdiction de fumer dans les lieux affectés à un usage collectif mis en place, dans un objectif de protection de la santé publique, par le législateur, réserve uniquement la possibilité de fumer dans des emplacements expressément réservés aux fumeurs ; qu’en précisant, en vue de protéger les tiers et en particulier des salariés contre le risque de tabagisme passif, que ces emplacements ne peuvent correspondre aux locaux dans lesquels sont délivrées des prestations de service, le pouvoir réglementaire n’a pas méconnu la portée des dispositions législatives mentionnées ci-dessus ; que, compte tenu des impératifs de santé publique, que de la portée des contraintes qu’il a posées, il n’a méconnu, ni le principe du commerce et de l’industrie ni le principe constitutionnel de la liberté d’entreprendre, alors même que certaines entreprises, tels que les salons à narguilé, ont traditionnellement pour objet même de délivrer des prestations à leurs clients fumeurs et que de nombreux salons pourraient cesser leur activité ; que les requérants ne peuvent utilement invoquer la méconnaissance de la charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne, laquelle, en l’état actuel du droit, est dépourvue de la force juridique qui s’attache à un traité introduit dans l’ordre juridique interne ; que le décret du 15 novembre 2006 ne prive pas les associations ayant un objet en lien avec le tabac du droit de réunir leurs membres ; qu’ainsi, il ne méconnaît pas le droit au respect de la vie privée ni la liberté de réunion garantis par les articles 8 et 11 de la Convention européenne de sauvegarde des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales ; »

Sauf à en user dans un lieu privé, à l’image du cigare, le narguilé devra bientôt être rangé parmi les souvenirs de musée Grévin.

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