Convention portant cession d’une clinique à un hôpital, quel est le juge compétent ?

FlickR - Coopération - Ross MayfieldVoici une décision extrêmement intéressante sur le plan procédural en général et celui de la compétence matérielle en particulier, que – semble-t-il – la jurisprudence n’a pas encore eu l’occasion de trancher. En l’espèce, le centre hospitalier intercommunal du Haut-Anjou  a demandé au Conseil d’Etat d’annuler l’arrêt de la cour administrative d’appel de Nantes qui, à la demande de M. Michel Duchesne, a condamné le centre à verser à celui-là une indemnité représentative d’un préavis de rupture de contrat de deux ans.

Le juge judiciaire ayant, par décision définitive, décliné sa compétence dans ce litige, la haute assemblée a décidé de saisir le Tribunal des conflits ((CE, 21 juillet 2009, Centre hospitalier intercommunal du Haut-Anjou, n°307773, AJDA 2009, p. 1853.)).

Ainsi s’exprime le Conseil d’Etat :

« Considérant qu’aux termes de l’article 34 du décret du 26 octobre 1849, reproduit à l’article R. 771-1 du code de justice administrative : « Lorsqu’une juridiction de l’ordre judiciaire ou de l’ordre administratif a, par une décision qui n’est plus susceptible de recours, décliné la compétence de l’ordre de juridiction auquel elle appartient au motif que le litige ne ressortit pas à cet ordre, toute juridiction de l’autre ordre, saisie du même litige, si elle estime que ledit litige ressortit à l’ordre de juridiction primitivement saisi, doit, par un jugement motivé qui n’est susceptible d’aucun recours même en cassation, renvoyer au Tribunal des conflits le soin de décider sur la question de compétence ainsi soulevée et surseoir à toute procédure jusqu’à la décision de ce tribunal » ;

Considérant qu’il résulte des pièces du dossier soumis aux juges du fond que le litige opposant le CENTRE  HOSPITALIER INTERCOMMUNAL DU HAUT-ANJOU à M. Duchesne porte exclusivement sur les droits et obligations nés des stipulations de la convention du 30 septembre 1997 par laquelle la société anonyme « Clinique de l’Espérance », gestionnaire d’un établissement de santé à Château-Gontier, a vendu l’ensemble de ses biens au CENTRE  HOSPITALIER INTERCOMMUNAL DU HAUT-ANJOU ; que cette convention, réalisant la cession d’une entité économique dans le contexte des difficultés financières que connaissait la clinique, alors même qu’elle est conclue avec un établissement public de santé et qu’elle a pour effet de concourir à la rationalisation de l’offre locale de soins, n’a pas pour objet de faire participer la clinique au service public  hospitalier ; qu’en outre, elle ne comporte aucune clause exorbitante du droit commun ; que, dès lors, la nature de cette convention est celle d’un contrat de droit privé ; qu’ainsi, il apparaît qu’il n’appartient pas à la juridiction administrative de connaître de ce litige ;

Les juges administratifs se réfèrent, on le voit, aux critères classiques de qualification des contrats administratifs, issus des jurisprudences Bertin et Grimouard – concernant l’objet du contrat – et Granits porphyroïdes des Vosges – concernant la présence ou non de clauses exorbitantes du droit commun.

Considérant toutefois que la cour d’appel d’Angers a, par un arrêt du 21 octobre 2003 passé en force de chose jugée, décliné la compétence des tribunaux de l’ordre judiciaire ; qu’il convient, dans ces conditions et par application de l’article 34 du décret du 26 octobre 1849, de renvoyer au Tribunal des conflits le soin de décider sur la question de compétence ainsi soulevée et de surseoir à toute procédure jusqu’à la décision de ce tribunal ;

Décide :

Article 1er : L’affaire est renvoyée au Tribunal des conflits.

Article 2 : Il est sursis à statuer sur le pourvoi présenté pour le CENTRE  HOSPITALIER INTERCOMMUNAL DU HAUT-ANJOU jusqu’à ce que le Tribunal des conflits ait tranché la question de savoir quel est l’ordre de juridiction compétent pour statuer sur ce litige.

Article 3 : La présente décision sera notifiée au CENTRE  HOSPITALIER INTERCOMMUNAL DU HAUT-ANJOU et à M. Michel Duchesne ».

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