Accident de trajet et incident de parcours

FlickR - rails - fLeMmADans un arrêt rendu le 29 janvier 2010 ((CE, Sect., 29 janvier 2010, M. O, n°314148.)) par la Section du contentieux, le Conseil d’Etat a jugé qu’un accident survenu à un fonctionnaire qui s’est involontairement écarté de son trajet domicile-travail demeure lié au service. L’intérêt pour la victime – lorsqu’elle est encore vivante – est évident. La qualification d’accident de service implique en effet le maintien de l’intégralité du traitement et la prise en charge des honoraires et frais médicaux lorsqu’ils ont été entraînés directement par l’accident et que le fonctionnaire en justifie le montant et l’utilité.

En l’espèce, un infirmier a été victime d’un accident mortel en rentrant de son service à Paris vers son domicile dans l’Oise. Or, cet accident s’est produit dans une gare située après celle où il aurait dû changer de train. Il ressort des pièces du dossier qu’il avait probablement dû s’endormir et avait laissé passer la gare où il effectuait habituellement la correspondance, d’où sa descente à la gare suivante. Il se trouvait, de ce fait, en dehors de son trajet habituel au cours duquel l’accident est présumé lié au service. La Caisse des dépôts et consignations avait, en conséquence, refusé la qualification d’accident de service, ce qui a conduit le Tribunal administratif d’Amiens à rejeter le recours de la veuve contre ce refus ((TA Amiens, 31 décembre 2007, M. O., AJDA 2008, p. 605.)).

Il convient de reproduire les extraits importants de l’arrêt :

« Considérant qu’il ressort des pièces du dossier soumis au juge du fond que M. O est décédé dans la gare de Laigneville au cours de la nuit du 25 au 26 décembre 2003, alors qu’il rentrait par le train à son domicile situé à Villiers-Saint-Paul (Oise), à l’issue de son service d’infirmier à l’hôpital Fernand Widal à Paris ;

Considérant que, pour décider que l’accident à l’origine du décès de M. O ne revêtait pas le caractère d’un accident de service, le tribunal administratif a relevé que la gare de Laigneville, située sur la ligne de chemin de fer en direction d’Amiens après celle de Creil où l’intéressé changeait habituellement de train pour en prendre un autre en direction de Compiègne jusqu’à la gare de Villiers-Saint-Paul, commune où il résidait, se trouvait en dehors de l’itinéraire normal de la victime, et qu’en tout état de cause ce détour, alors même que, comme le soutient la requérante, M. O se serait endormi dans le train et réveillé à Laigneville, n’était ni lié aux nécessités de la vie courante ni en relation avec l’exercice des fonctions de M. O ; qu’en se déterminant ainsi, sans rechercher si l’écart de trajet effectué par M. O avait, comme cela était soutenu, un caractère involontaire, le tribunal a entaché sa décision d’une erreur de droit ; que, dès lors, l’article 2 de son jugement doit être annulé ;

Ici, le tribunal administratif n’a fait que reprendre la jurisprudence habituelle en la matière. On ne peut l’en blâmer au demeurant. Pour retenir la qualification d’accident de service, il faut d’abord un accident, ensuite un lien avec le service. L’accident de trajet est une catégorie spécifique de l’accident de service et bénéficie à ce titre d’un traitement spécial. Par itinéraire normal, il faut entendre que l’accident de trajet doit d’être produit sur le trajet du travail, pendant le trajet sur le trajet le plus direct et le plus rapide à défaut d’être le plus court ou bien lors d’un détour imposé par les nécessités de la vie courante ou par l’exercice des fonctions. Sans entrer dans les détails, on peut dire que la jurisprudence accepte que l’agent public se détourne de son trajet entre son lieu de travail et celui de son domicile si, selon la formule jurisprudentielle consacrée, « ce détour n’est pas étranger aux nécessités de la vie courante ». Traduisez : si je fais un léger détour pour me rendre à la boulangerie et qu’un accident survient, je suis pris en charge ; si, avant de rentrer voir mon épouse, je passe voir ma maîtresse et que malencontreusement je me fais, par exemple, renverser par une voiture, il me reste les yeux pour pleurer.

En l’absence de texte réglementaire opposable sur les accidents de trajets dans la fonction publique, la jurisprudence administrative ne recule devant aucune subtilité. Les lecteurs intéressés se reporteront avec profit à l’étude exhaustive de J-L. Pecchioli ((J-L Pecchioli, Itinéraire protégé. Le fonctionnaire face aux accidents de trajet, JCP A 2003, 1199.)).

Considérant qu’il y a lieu, dans les circonstances de l’espèce, de régler, dans cette mesure, l’affaire au fond en application des dispositions de l’article L. 821-2 du code de justice administrative ;

Considérant que la demande de Mme O, qui tend à l’annulation d’une décision du 9 novembre 2005 de la Caisse des dépôts et consignations, qui lui a été notifiée le 14 novembre 2005, a été enregistrée au greffe du tribunal administratif d’Amiens le 16 janvier 2006 , alors que le délai de deux mois expirait le 15 janvier 2006 à minuit ; que, toutefois, le 15 janvier étant un dimanche, la demande introduite le premier jour ouvrable suivant, le 16 janvier, était encore recevable ; qu’ainsi le moyen tiré d’une prétendue forclusion de la demande de Mme O doit être écarté ;

Considérant qu’ainsi qu’il a été dit ci-dessus, l’accident est survenu sur la ligne de chemin de fer qu’empruntait habituellement M. O pour se rendre de son travail à son domicile, dans une gare située juste après celle où il devait prendre une correspondance ; qu’il résulte de l’instruction que cet écart par rapport au trajet habituel de l’intéressé est dû à l’assoupissement de ce dernier et ne traduit aucune intention de sa part de ne pas rejoindre directement son domicile dans un délai habituel ; qu’ainsi, et alors même que l’accident serait imputable à une faute de l’intéressé, M. O doit être regardé comme n’ayant pas quitté son itinéraire normal ; que l’accident dont il a été victime a, par suite, le caractère d’un accident de service ;

Il convient de saluer l’oeuvre créatrice des Sages du Palais Royal. Dès lors que l’infirmier ne l’a pas fait exprès (quand bien même il s’agirait d’un accident qui lui était imputable en partie), le Conseil d’Etat considère, par une sorte de fiction, que l’intéressé n’avait pas quitté son itinéraire normal. Ce faisant, il fait prévaloir l’intention sur les actes, ce qui est remarquable.

Considérant qu’il résulte de ce qui précède que Mme O est fondée à demander l’annulation de la décision par laquelle la Caisse des dépôts et consignations a rejeté la demande de Mme O tendant à l’attribution d’une rente viagère d’invalidité à titre de réversion ; »

Combien de fois a-t-on vu des décisions marquées par la terrible froideur des textes ! Si la présente décision n’a pas été rendue en équité, cela y ressemble fort et mérite assurément d’être approuvé.

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