L’assurance chômage au regard des agents privés d’emploi

Le code du travail offre la possibilité aux établissements publics de santé, entre autres, de gérer librement leur assurance chômage, soit en déléguant ladite gestion à l’Association pour l’Emploi dans l’Industrie et le Commerce, plus communément appelée ASSEDIC, soit en l’assurant directement.

En effet, aux termes de l’article L. 351-4 du code du travail, tout employeur – qu’il soit public ou privé – est tenu d’assurer contre le risque de privation d’emploi tout salarié dont l’engagement résulte d’un contrat de travail et ce, sous réserve des dispositions de l’article L. 351-12 du même code.

Ce dernier dispose notamment :

 » Ont droit à l’allocation d’assurance dans les mêmes conditions prévues à l’article L. 351-3 :

[…]

La charge et la gestion de cette indemnisation sont assurées par les employeurs mentionnés au présent article. Ceux-ci peuvent toutefois, par convention conclue avec les institutions gestionnaires du régime d’assurance, leur confier cette gestion.[…]

Les employeurs mentionnés au 2º ainsi que, pour leurs agents non titulaires, les établissements publics d’enseignement supérieur et les établissements publics à caractère scientifique et technologique et, pour les assistants d’éducation, les établissements d’enseignement mentionnés à l’article L. 916-1 du code de l’éducation peuvent également adhérer au régime prévu à l’article L. 351-4. La contribution incombant aux salariés prévue à l’article L. 351-5 est égale au montant de la contribution exceptionnelle qu’ils auraient dû verser en application de l’article 2 de la loi nº 82-939 du 4 novembre 1982 relative à la contribution exceptionnelle de solidarité en faveur des travailleurs privés d’emploi et est versée par l’employeur.  »

1º Les agents non fonctionnaires de l’Etat et de ses établissements publics administratifs, les agents titulaires des collectivités territoriales ainsi que les agents statutaires des autres établissements publics administratifs ;

2º Les agents non titulaires des collectivités territoriales et les agents non statutaires des établissements publics administratifs autres que ceux de l’Etat et ceux mentionnés au 4º ci-dessous ainsi que les agents non statutaires des groupements d’intérêt public ;

Dans une décision récente, le juge administratif rappelle cette liberté de choix qui est laissée aux établissements de santé. De l’article L. 351-12 du code du travail, il déduit qu’aucune disposition législative n’impose à la collectivité publique le choix de mode de gestion de son assurance chômage.

Les conclusions indemnitaires fondées sur la faute commise par le centre hospitalier tenant à l’absence de cotisation auprès des organismes d’assurance-chômage doivent, dans ces conditions, être rejetées ((TA Marseille, 1ère ch., 2 mai 2006, Martineau, req n° 0205209, AJFP, juill-août 2006, p. 210-211.)).

De manière plus générale, il est de principe que les agents des établissements publics administratifs ont droit, en cas de perte involontaire d’emploi, aux allocations du régime d’assurance-chômage dès lors que l’accord relatif au régime d’assurance-chômage prévu à l’article L. 351-8 du code du travail est intervenu et a été agréé.

Mais que se passe-t-il en cas de démission ? Dans certaines circonstances, la démission peut-elle s’assimiler à une perte involontaire d’emploi ? C’est la question qui avait été posée au Conseil d’État en 1991.

Pour y répondre, la Haute juridiction administrative avait relevé préalablement que le ministre chargé de l’emploi avait, par arrêté du 28 mars 1984, agréé la convention du 24 février 1984 relative à l’assurance-chômage, et le règlement annexé à cette convention, l’une et l’autre en vigueur à la date à laquelle ont pris fin les fonctions de la requérante.

Le Conseil d’État a considéré qu’en vertu des articles 1er, § 2 et 3 f) du règlement précité, les salariés qui avaient démissionné pour un « motif reconnu légitime par la commission paritaire de l’ASSEDIC » étaient assimilés aux travailleurs involontairement privés d’emploi et bénéficiaient des prestations de l’assurance-chômage.

S’agissant de la démission d’un agent d’un établissement public administratif, il appartient à la seule autorité administrative compétente d’apprécier, sous le contrôle du juge de l’excès de pouvoir, si les motifs de cette démission permettent d’assimiler celle-ci à une perte involontaire d’emploi.

En l’espèce, il s’agissait de la démission d’un agent auxiliaire contractuel des services hospitaliers en fonction au centre hospitalier de Bressuire, qui résidait avec son époux et leurs deux jeunes enfants dans une localité située à une quinzaine de kilomètres au nord de Bressuire, au motif qu’elle devait changer de résidence et s’installer à Niort à la suite de la mutation de son mari dans cette ville ((CE, 13 nov. 1991, Centre hospitalier de Bressuire, n° 85873, Rec. CE, T. p. 1027 ; pour une autre illustration : CE, 27 avril 1994, Mme François, n° 136417.)).

A contrario, le juge administratif déboute les requérants qui n’établissent pas avoir recherché un nouvel emploi après leur départ d’une fonction ((CAA Paris, 6 juin 1996, Mme Adèle c. CHR de Fort-de-France, n° 94PA01298.)). En l’espèce, l’agent recruté temporairement pour pourvoir à l’absence d’agents titulaires indisponibles – caractère temporaire ayant perduré de 1981 à 1989, soit pendant près de 8 ans – ne pouvait dès lors soutenir avoir été empêché de percevoir cet avantage par la faute du centre hospitalier qui aurait négligé de cotiser à l’ASSEDIC.

Ne peut davantage prétendre à un revenu de remplacement un agent statutaire de la fonction publique hospitalière qui, en faisant l’objet d’une sanction d’exclusion temporaire de fonctions pour une durée de deux ans, assortie d’un sursis de vingt-et-un mois, ne peut être regardé comme ayant été privé d’emploi au sens des dispositions des articles L. 351-12 et L. 351-1 du code du travail, dès lors que l’emploi qu’il occupait lui restait acquis et que sa réintégration, à l’issue de sa période d’exclusion, était de droit, et quand bien même cette sanction avait pour effet, et même pour objet, d’interrompre sa rémunération pour une période limitée ((CAA Nancy, 24 oct. 1996, M. Warheit, n° 94NC00732.)).

Pour un rejet du même ordre concernant un médecin du travail contractuel, faute de preuves suffisantes, on se reportera à l’arrêt suivant : CAA Paris, 6 oct. 1998, Mme Lamotte c. Centre hospitalier intercommunal de Villeneuve Saint Georges, n° 97PA02436 et n° 97PA02583.

En définitive, le juge administratif ne demeure pas arc-bouté sur le code du travail pour connaître de la situation des agents privés d’emploi. Une marge de manoeuvre est laissée à ces derniers, en ce qui concerne la preuve à rapporter pour convaincre les magistrats du bien fondé de leurs prétentions.

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