Prêt d’une CRAM à un hôpital : droit privé ou droit public ?

La question s’est récemment posée de savoir si un contrat de prêt consenti à un établissement public de santé par une caisse régionale d’assurance maladie revêtait un caractère administratif et justifiait par suite la compétence de son juge naturel.Comme en pareille situation, le tribunal administratif a dû examiner le contrat en question à l’aune des critères traditionnels du contrat public (objet du contrat, présence de clauses exorbitantes du droit commun, etc.).

C’est ainsi que par application des dispositions des articles L. 222-1, alinéa 1, L.222-3, alinéa 1, L.222-4, R.251-14, R.264-1, alinéa 1, et R.265-1 du code de la sécurité sociale, une caisse régionale d’assurance maladie (CRAM), organisme de droit privé, peut consentir à un centre hospitalier un prêt sans intérêt, en vue de la construction d’une maison d’accueil pour personnes âgées dépendantes. Ladite convention peut soumettre le versement du prêt au respect par l’emprunteur de plusieurs conditions et prévoir que toute violation d’une seule des obligations prévues entraînera de plein droit, le remboursement immédiat de la totalité de la participation de la sécurité sociale, déduction faite des sommes déjà remboursées.

Pour autant, ce prêt de fonds, de nature privée, ne fait pas participer à la gestion d’un service public, la CRAM qui l’a consenti, dans la mesure où il n’est pas prévu que celle-ci soit associée au centre hospitalier emprunteur dans le gestion de l’établissement public de santé dont le prêt avait pour objet de financer la construction. Le fait pour la CRAM de disposer d’un siège au conseil d’administration du centre hospitalier emprunteur, n’est pas davantage de nature à associer à cette gestion. Par ailleurs, le contrat dont s’agit est dépourvu de clause exorbitante de droit commun. Dans ces conditions, le litige relève de la compétence des juridictions de l’ordre judiciaire ((TA Nice, 4ème chambre, 30 mars 2007, Caisse régionale d’assurance maladie du Sud-est c/ centre hospitalier de Menton « La Palmosa », n° 0200134.)).

Le juge judiciaire ayant décliné sa compétence, le dossier a fait l’objet d’un renvoi au Tribunal des conflits.

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