Quelle procédure pour une demande de remboursement des allocations perçues durant les études études infimières ?

En France, on sait la pénurie des professions paramédicales en général et des infirmiers en particulier. A l’image des autres agents publics, toute catégorie confondue (A, B ou C), les élèves infirmiers sont donc conduits à la fin de leur scolarité à signer un contrat d’engagement de servir qu’ils ne peuvent rompre avant l’échéance sous peine de rembourser une certaine somme – en général, dissuasive – à leur établissement d’origine ((Cf. art. 24, 41 et 136 de la loi n° 86-33 du 9 janvier 1986 et l’art. 7 du décret n° 90-319 du 5 avril 1990 applicable aux infirmiers (en secteur public).)). Est tout aussi courante la situation dans laquelle un établissement de santé verse une allocation d’étude mensuelle à un étudiant jusqu’à l’obtention de son diplôme d’infirmier en contrepartie d’un engagement d’exercer les fonctions d’infirmier au sein de l’établissement public pendant une durée égale à celle du versement de l’allocation.

La procédure est dès lors assez simple pour qui ne respecte pas son engagement de servir : un titre de recette est émis à l’encontre du débiteur indélicat par l’établissement créancier, titre pour lequel la jurisprudence est très sévère concernant les mentions devant y figurer, mais là n’est pas notre propos. Soit le débiteur récalcitre ((Néologisme : le verbe « récalcitrer » n’existe pas et ne s’emploie qu’au participe présent…)) comme à son habitude, et il formera un recours gracieux contre le titre exécutoire, soit il est de bonne foi et, se rapprochant du trésorier, il cherchera à échelonner la dette.

Le moins que l’on puisse dire, c’est que même dans un contentieux indemnitaire, les droits de la défense doivent prévaloir, l’établissement créancier devant mettre son débiteur en mesure de faire valoir ses observations. C’est ce que l’Assistance publique-hôpitaux de Paris a appris à ses dépens dans un arrêt fort récent.

La Cour administrative d’appel de Bordeaux est catégorique concernant les droits élémentaires de la défense.

Le tribunal administratif de Bordeaux a en effet annulé le titre exécutoire que l’Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris avait émis à l’encontre de M. J. le 5 décembre 2000 au motif que ce dernier avait rompu de façon anticipée son engagement d’exercer les fonctions d’infirmier en échange d’une allocation d’étude mensuelle qu’il avait reçue pendant sa formation.

Dans son arrêt, la cour administrative d’appel de Bordeaux affirme :

« que la garantie d’être mis à même de présenter ses observations préalablement à toute mesure prise en considération de la personne s’applique aux décisions de remboursement des allocations perçues durant les études par des élèves infirmiers d’un établissement public, même dans le cas où le contrat régissant le versement de cette allocation ne mentionne pas une telle obligation ; qu’il est constant que la décision du 5 décembre 2000 a été prise sans que M. Jouanneau bénéficie de cette garantie ; qu’elle est donc illégale, de même que la décision rejetant le recours gracieux formé par l’intéressé et celle d’émettre un bulletin de perception».

(CAA Bordeaux, 24 avril 2007, n° 04BX01068, AJDA 2007, p. 1671)

Au détour d’un arrêt d’espèce, les juges rappellent que si l’Administration dispose d’un privilège exorbitant, celui du préalable, cette dernière ne peut s’affranchir des principes généraux du droit, tels que celui de la défense, dont la possibilité de présenter ses observations préalablement à toute mesure prise en considération de la personne fait, à l’évidence, partie.


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