Le décret n°2007-1344 ou la sécurité des établissements en cas de défaillance électrique

Pris pour l’application de l’article 7 de la loi du 13 août 2004 relative à la modernisation de la sécurité civile, un décret du 12 septembre 2007 détermine les catégories d’installations et d’établissements concernées par l’obligation de sécurité des personnes prises en charge en cas de défaillance du réseau d’énergie ainsi que les modalités et les délais de leur mise en place. L’article 7 de la loi n° 2004-811 du 13 août 2004 relative à la modernisation de la sécurité civile impose aux établissements de santé et médico-sociaux hébergeant des personnes fragiles de prendre les dispositions nécessaires à la sécurité des patients en cas de défaillance du réseau électrique.

Qu’en était-il, jusqu’à présent, en matière de continuité de l’alimentation électrique pour l’hébergement des personnes fragiles ? Rien : le vide juridique. Ces établissements étaient tenus à la seule obligation d’une alimentation autonome pour les installations permettant les opérations de secours (qui est prévue dans les règlements de sécurité incendie), les hôpitaux devant disposer de groupes électrogènes afin de garantir la continuité des soins, notamment dans les blocs opératoires.

Quant aux maisons de retraite, elles ne font pas partie des services prioritaires pour l’alimentation électrique ((Ces services sont énumérés par l’arrêté ministériel du 5 juillet 1990 fixant les consignes générales de délestage sur les réseaux électriques.)). Or, ces établissements, comme tous les autres, étaient de fait soumis à des coupures de courant en cas d’excès de consommation d’électricité par rapport à la production nationale qui pourraient entraîner de graves conséquences sur l’état des personnes prises en charge.

Cette disposition législative a donc prévu deux modalités possibles pour garantir la sécurité de ces établissements en cas de panne d’électricité, en fonction de la nature et de la taille de l’établissement :

  1. une alimentation électrique autonome, soit dans tout le bâtiment (pour les hôpitaux par exemple), soit dans quelques zones dans lesquelles les occupants pourront être regroupés en cas de panne ;
  2. une prise des mesures alternatives pour garantir la sécurité des personnes hébergées (par exemple, en assurant des conditions minimales d’éclairage et de chauffage, ou bien encore, par des aérations naturelles en cas de fortes chaleurs).

Le décret n° 2007-1344 du 12 septembre 2007 précise en ce sens ces modalités pour les établissements régis par le code de l’action sociale et des familles (CASF) et par le code de la santé publique (CSP), sans toutefois rentrer dans le détail des mesures à prendre. Les établissements concernés doivent :

  1. soit s’assurer de la disponibilité de moyens d’alimentation autonomes en énergie pour les installations utilisées afin de garantir la sécurité des personnes hébergées pendant quarante-huit heures au moins,
  2. soit prévoir les mesures permettant d’assurer, par eux-mêmes, la sécurité des personnes hébergées en cas de défaillance du réseau d’énergie.

Ces mesures doivent être prévues par le représentant légal de l’établissement ou le chef d’établissement ((Art. R. 313-32 CASF ; art. R. 6111-22 CSP.)). Le décret précise par ailleurs les catégories d’établissements concernées, à savoir les établissements médico-sociaux ((Art. R. 313-31 CASF.)) mentionnés à l’article L. 312-1 du CASF, et les établissements de santé, autrement dit ceux pratiquant à titre permanent un hébergement collectif et ceux assurant une activité de soins de courte durée en MCO ((Médecine, chirurgie ou gynécologie-obstétrique.)) qui doivent répondre aux deux séries d’obligations précédemment indiquées. Les délais de mise en conformité sont de 2 ans pour les établissements régis par le CASF et de 5 ans pour ceux réglementés au titre du CSP.

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