Surveiller ses paroles, même en arrêt maladie

Il n’y a pas que les établissements de santé dans la vie. Il y a les établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux aussi. Et leur vie sociale ne ressemble pas à un long fleuve tranquille, loin s’en faut.

Par arrêt en date du 10 décembre 2008, ((L’arrêt a fait l’objet d’un commentaire dans la Semaine Juridique Social n°8, 17 février 2009, 1083, comm. M. Caron.)) la Cour de cassation, confrontée à cette réalité, a du résoudre la question suivante : les propos tenus par un salarié à l’endroit de son supérieur hiérarchique et prononcés devant trois adultes qu’il était chargé d’encadrer se rattachent-ils à la vie de l’entreprise ?

La réponse des hauts magistrats tient en ces quelques mots : malgré le fait que ces propos aient été tenus hors du temps et du lieu de travail, ils peuvent constituer une cause réelle et sérieuse de licenciement.

Quelques observations s’imposent cependant :

  • les propos incriminés n’ont pas été tenus dans l’entreprise mais à un moment où le contrat de travail du salarié était suspendu pour fait de maladie ;
  • les propos injurieux n’ont pas été adressés directement par leur auteur à leur destinataire mais par l’intermédiaire des adultes encadrés ;
  • l’auteur des propos exerçait des fonctions dans un centre d’aide par le travail (CAT) ((La loi du 11 février 2005 utilise le terme « établissement et service d’aide par le travail. » (ESAT).)) au sein duquel il avait une responsabilité particulière à l’égard des personnes accueillies.

Il est permis de considérer que, pour parvenir à cette solution, les magistrats ont notamment été sensibles au statut et à la mission conférés à l’encadrant qui a tenu les propos injurieux. Sans être dans la lettre de la décision rendue, le code de l’action sociale et des familles était sans doute dans l’esprit des juges suprêmes.

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