Exit le commissaire du gouvernement ! Ave le rapporteur public !

Les traditions se perdent et le contentieux administratif n’échappe pas à la règle.

En effet, depuis le 1er février 2009, l’appellation « Commissaire du Gouvernement » est remplacée devant les juridictions administratives par celle de « Rapporteur public. »

L’ancienne appellation était souvent mal comprise, à telle enseigne d’ailleurs que les journalistes du Monde qui y avaient recours prenaient souvent la précaution d’ajouter entre parenthèses qu’il s’agissait d’un magistrat indépendant.

Aux termes du décret n° 2009-14 du 7 janvier 2009, ses attributions ne sont cependant pas modifiées. L’article L7 du code de justice administrative dispose toujours qu’il « expose publiquement, et en toute indépendance, son opinion sur les questions que présentent à juger les requêtes et sur les solutions qu’elles appellent. »

L’article R. 711-3 du même code ajoute toutefois, et c’est là une nouveauté remarquable, que :

« Si le jugement de l’affaire doit intervenir après le prononcé de conclusions du rapporteur public, les parties ou leurs mandataires sont mis en mesure de connaître, avant la tenue de l’audience, le sens de ces conclusions sur l’affaire qui les concerne. »

Ce droit à communication n’avait pas encore été formalisé par les textes.

A titre expérimental, le décret prévoit, en outre, depuis le 1er février 2009 et jusqu’au 31 décembre 2011, dans les tribunaux administratifs et cours administratives d’appel désignés par le vice-président du Conseil d’État, la faculté pour les parties de présenter, soit en personne, soit par avocat, des « observations orales » à l’appui de leurs conclusions écrites et ce après le prononcé des conclusions du rapporteur public.

La réforme devrait mettre un terme aux doutes sur la compatibilité avec le droit européen de l’institution du commissaire du gouvernement, encore qu’une partie de la doctrine reste sceptique. ((Cf. notamment P-O Caille, Le décret du 7 janvier 2009 relatif au rapporteur public des juridictions administratives et au déroulement de l’audience devant ces juridictions, La Semaine Juridique Adm. n°4, 19 janv. 2009, act. 95 ; M-C Rouault, Ne dites plus « commissaire du Gouvernement » mais « rapporteur public . – A propos du décret du 7 janvier 2009, La Semaine Juridique Edition Générale, n°5, 28 janvier 2009, act. 47. ; M-C. de Montecler, Le commissaire du gouvernement est mort ! Vive le rapporteur public ! AJDA 2008, p. 1230.))

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