Reclassement et inaptitude physique définitive au poste de travail

Creative commons - Maison de retraite Saint-Roch à Bagnols-sur-CèzeQu’il concerne la fonction publique ou le secteur privé, le reclassement représente, pour les employeurs, une question parfois insoluble et souvent incompréhensible. On ne peut leur en faire grief, le législateur n’ayant semble-t-il pas été passionné par la question. Il suffit de se reporter aux textes, très peu nombreux et assez laconiques. C’est, comme toujours, aux tribunaux qu’il est revenu de forger une jurisprudence sur les obligations des employeurs en la matière. Sauf à disposer d’un bon service juridique ou d’avocats rompus à la matière, les cas complexes d’inaptitude physique sont émaillés d’erreurs de procédure et/ou de fond (non-respect du principe du contradictoire, défaut d’information, inobservation de l’obligation de recherche préalable d’un poste, etc.).

Les choses se compliquent davantage lorsque, en droit privé, on a affaire à un groupe de sociétés. Les possibilités de reclassement doivent être recherchées à l’intérieur du groupe parmi les entreprises dont les activités , l’organisation ou le lieu d’exploitation leur permettent d’effectuer la permutation de tout ou partie du personnel ((Cass. Soc., 24 juin 2009, n°07-45.656, Sté Domaine de la Palombière c/ Mme Dadoun.)).

En l’espèce, la salariée, licenciée pour inaptitude physique, était directrice d’une maison de retraite.

La cour d’appel a relevé que, si les sept maisons de retraite gérées par l’employeur étaient constituées sous la forme de sociétés indépendantes, elles étaient toutes situées dans la même région et regroupées sous un même sigle, qu’elles faisaient état dans leur propre documentation de la notion de groupe et avaient développé des outils de communication communs et qu’une possibilité de permutation avait été proposée, lors de l’entretien préalable, à la salariée dans une maison de retraite similaire, que ces éléments démontraient une organisation et des relations de partenariat permettant la permutation du personnel.

Ayant constaté que l’employeur ne justifiait pas avoir effectué une recherche effective de reclassement au sein d’un groupe à l’intérieur duquel devait être mis en œuvre le reclassement, elle a justement accueilli la demande de la salariée en paiement d’indemnité pour licenciement abusif, d’indemnité compensatrice de préavis et congés payés afférents.


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